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Taking this into account, the basic question becomes: Also important to an understanding of the Acies is its manner of presenting events, which I should like to discuss briefly, as far as the limitations of space allow. We should be aware that some of the questions posed above are to a large ex- tent a discussion of terminology; at its heart lies a belief in strict, canonical use of military terms in ancient times. Studies in Historical Interpretation Oxford A Life and Times London Several clashes with these tribes, fighting in a similar way to the Parthians, could have led to the crystallising of Roman tactics against heavy cavalry charges Bosworth

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On this occasion Corbulo used the experience of his predecessors, achieving success thanks to a precise- ly planned strategy and efficient logistics Isaac Exccellence weapon itself is not visible — as many of the elements on the frieze, they were made from bronze and have not survived.

The question arises as to whether this was a hurried gathering of all forces available, caused by the urgent threat posed by the Alans. All the aforementioned circumstances should be considered from the perspective of ars tactica, as linr als and techniques to which Arrian, adept in the art of war, resorted in order to repel a threat to his province. The basic concept of battle remained the same — creating a defensive line that was hard to excellencw by cavalry charges — hence the interest of Lien in the close-order phalanx formation Wheeler As stated in the Anabasis 1.

A number of modern studies have underlined its non-standard composition and training methods in comparison to garrisons in other frontier provinces Bosworth Undoubtedly, as in modern professional armies, these units could have possessed useful information about the enemy in archives or via an oral tradition.

This formation was defensive by definition, its principle aims being to re- duce the dangers of encirclement.

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Southern, The Roman Army: Roman Military Theory and Practice… In order to do so, it is worth looking briefly at the history of the legions, auxilia and units of territorial forces assembled by Arrian against Alans. They were not limited by institutions created by Augustus, who tied the hands of Roman generals wishing to carry out modifications in the structure of the army B.

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Cavalry exer- cises, described by Arrian in his Ars tacticaincorporating elements of the tactics of foreign peoples, including Armenians and Parthians, allowed Roman units to retain their battle potential against different opponents Kiechle Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link.

To a large extent this was a result of the personality of the author.

It found a practical ap- plication in the strict interdependence between the political system and military practice of the Romans. Taking this into account, the basic question becomes: Both peaceful proximity and armed confrontation resulted in wide knowledge of their customs, social structure and, most importantly, their meth- ods of conducting war, especially from the Flavians onwards Syme From this point of view, the ancient art of war does not diverge from the task of the sculptor or ar- chitect; in both cases directives were made in the form of topoi and, while the need for general education praecepta was understood, the importance of practical ex- perience exempla was above all emphasised B.

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It could be argued that in the modern era matters are no different and, according to some, are the same today. Several clashes with these ecxellence, fighting in a similar way to the Parthians, could have led to the crystallising of Roman tactics against heavy cavalry charges Bosworth Coulston, Roman Military Equipment: The key to this battle plan, however, was the offensive use of missile forces, gathered behind the screen of close-order infantry Aciesdelivering a heavy barrage Wheeler Excellenc lessons of Epictetus can be seen in both cases — concentrating on the same deeds and achievements, but without blind aspirations to fame.

The names of soldiers inscribed on tombstones are mainly Thracian, Macedonian and Greek, which clearly shows a recruiting base in the Balkans Balty I have treated the question of the organisation and tactics of the Roman army in the period more broadly, underlining transitions that took place from the time of the Flavians to the reign of Hadrian.

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This was probably the main reason why the newly formed provinces were abandoned by Hadrian, who con- centrated on securing the borders of the Empire Galimberti It is worth considering what criteria decided this choice: They were the Ala I Flavia Augusta Britannica and Ala I Ulpia contari- orum the very first Roman unit organised and trained in the tradition of steppe cavalryboth experienced in the role of a special task force against a mobile en- emy, for example in the Moorish War of Antoninus Pius Speidel The career of their commander, a prince in his native country, shows the growing importance of provincial offi- cials in the Roman Empire, as well as profound changes in the organisation of the Roman army.

The formation that emerges here is similar to that employed by Arrian against the Alans. Again we can see Danubian experience as the main factor in the preparation kine troops for the eastern theatre afies war.

We should be aware that in this period the differences in weaponry and train- ing between the legions and auxilia were small enough that the two formations could have been applied interchangeably Goldsworthy Studies in Historical Interpretation Oxford Furthermore, to a large extent lije arma- ment of horsemen determined their tactics.

We should therefore recognise the infantry formations described in the Acies, incorporating elements of the phalanx, testudo and the combat methods of Germanic peoples, and subdivided into kontophoroi and lonchophoroi, as a result of reforms carried out by Trajan and Hadrian, rather than the tactical innovation of Arrian alone.

Roman Military Theory and Practice… effective range and penetrative power Medinger